An optical phenomenon that is seen as a flash of light as a gemstone is moved under a source of incident light. A fault with vertical movement and an inclined fault plane. A ring-shaped island or group of coral islands that are surrounded by deep ocean water and that enclose a shallow lagoon. The Geology Department at WWU is committed to excellence in both teaching and research. A narrow passage on the northern corner of the island is the only surface connection of the lagoon to the ocean. Click on an underlined word for more information on that subject. It is a popular gem cut into cabochons, beads, and ornamental objects. This sediment is being scraped off the top of the oceanic plate as it is forced under the continental plate. They must be strong, physically fit enough to work long hours, willing to get extremely greasy and dirty, and work outdoors in all types of weather throughout the year. Some people assume that "geology" and "earth science" are identical, but that is not true. Flaring is a waste of a resource, a cause of pollution, and a contribution to global warming. It is also cut as a gem when found in clear crystals with attractive colors. A conspicuous hill with steep sides and a flat top. As the back-to-school season commences, Geology.com has a variety of new resources to serve teachers and students of geology, geography and earth science. An igneous rock that has a relatively high silica content. Historical geology definition, the branch of geology dealing with the history of the earth. The water in the aquifer is also under enough pressure that, when the aquifer is tapped by a well, the water rises up the well bore to a level that is above the top of the aquifer. To be an aquifer it must have these traits to a high enough degree that it stores and transmits useful quantities of water. More information. As water moves from the surface down through this layer, soluble constituents are removed and carried deeper into the ground. "Geology" is a much more limited science and just one part of "Earth science.". It is produced by the shattering of rocks during an eruption and by magma being ejected as a fine spray - propelled by volcanic gas escaping from the vent. An aquifer that is not overlain by an impermeable rock unit. The larger the main shock, the more numerous and longer the aftershock sequences. A good dictionary should be on the desk of every geologist and within easy reach. It is usually composed primarily of hornblende and plagioclase, usually with very little quartz. The removal of small-size soil and sediment particles from a land surface by the persistent action of wind. IHS Kingdom creators of Kingdom Suite, an industry-standard 3D seismic and well log visualization and interpretation system. The Facts on File Dictionary of Geology and Geophysics. GEOLOGY la géologie: GROTTO la grotte: LAND la terre: LAVA la lave: MAGNET l'aimant: MAP la carte: MARBLE le marbre: MINERAL minéral: MOUNTAIN la montagne: PEBBLE le caillou: QUARTZ le quartz: ROCK la roche: SAND le sable: SOIL le sol, la terre: STONE la pierre: VOLCANO le volcan The written exams must all be taken within a period of one week. It is soft (H: 3.5-4) and cleaves easily. A portion of the upper mantle that is directly below the lithosphere. The lower portion of a glacier where, over the course of a year, more ablation than accumulation occurs. An optical phenomenon that defines the gem known as "moonstone." The color combination is caused by twinning. A soil layer immediately below the surficial organic material. This term is commonly used in the arid and semiarid areas of the southwestern United States. A crystal that does not have uniform color or composition. Antibiotics, Pharmaceuticals, and Personal Care Produce The rocks below the surface were deposited, deformed, and eroded. The desert pavement surface shown here is on an alluvial fan in the Providence Mountains State Recreational Area of California. Mark R. Frank - economic geology, experimental petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry. Natural gas that is found in a reservoir with crude oil. More information. There is no universally agreed upon definition for the word "gemstone." Agricultural geology definition is - the branch of geology that deals with the character and origin of soils, the occurrence of mineral fertilizers, and the behavior of underground water. A geology dictionary that is used regularly is one of the most important tools for developing professional competence. "Geology" is a much … In map view it has the shape of an open fan. The interior of 'a'a is very dense. Anthracite coals have a bright luster, break with a conchoidal fracture, a semi-metallic luster and are difficult to ignite. A sandstone that contains at least 25% feldspar. Easily recognized because the feldspar grains are typically pink and angular in shape. A good dictionary should be on the desk of every geologist and within easy reach. Small creatures that have adapted to a permanent life in a cave. An optical phenomenon seen as intersecting lines of light that form a star-like figure just below the surface of a cabochon-cut gem. Agate is a cryptocrystalline quartz that is translucent and patterned with bands, plumes, dendrites, or inclusions that produce a colorful, interesting appearance. the study of this science. It is often cut into cabochons for use in jewelry. Orthoclase, plagioclase, and microcline would be "alkali feldspars." Also, consider ametrine, a bicolor quartz that is a combination of AMEthyst and ciTRINE believed to be caused by twinning. Often associated with malachite and chrysocolla. This leading dictionary - now in its fourth edition - offers wide-ranging and authoritative coverage of the earth sciences and related topics in over 7,500 clear and accessible entries. The removal of surface material from a meteoroid as it passes through Earth's atmosphere. The angle of repose varies for different types of materials and different moisture conditions. Four- and six-ray stars are most common. Associated gas is often flared (burned) when oil is produced because a collection and distribution system is not available to transport the gas to market. This weak zone allows the plates of the lithosphere to slide across the top of the asthenosphere. This dictionary is compact and inexpensive at only $19.99. Shown in the photo is an outcrop of alluvium. Although many people believe that diamond has the strongest dispersion of all gems, a few gems such as sphalerite, demantoid garnet (shown in the photo), sphene, and zircon have an even greater dispersion. Alluvial fans typically form in arid or semiarid climates. The examination committee determines whether the student passes or fails the examinations and whether or not an oral exam is required. Aventurine is a quartz variety that contains a blizzard of tiny reflective inclusions such as muscovite, hematite, or fuchsite. It includes the study of organisms that have inhabited our planet. They are rock-forming minerals found in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. It ranges from a very light blue to a richly saturated blue, with the richer color being much more desired. The Geology Dictionary (http://geology.com/geology-dictionary.shtml) provides definitions for over 500 of the most commonly used terms in geology, hydrology and earth science. Amber is an organic gem material. Their fossilized shells are often cut and used as an ornamental or jewelry stone. It usually has a yellowish to orangish-brown color but can be white, greenish, bluish or even black. A fault that has slipped in historic time and which is likely to slip again in the future. B38 1987] Challinor, John. It may be porous and capable of containing water, but the transmission rate is so poor that it cannot be considered to be a water source. A good dictionary should be on the desk of every geologist and within easy reach. The photo is a specimen of pink granite about two inches across. Garnet is the name of a group of silicate minerals that share a common crystal structure, but they vary in composition. The term is also used for the rock materials after the flow has cooled. Abandoned mines are typically the source of acid discharge and can continue to produce acid discharge for decades without remediation. If the rock or mineral term you are looking for is not in the dictionary, please e-mail us and we'll add it. Because it is relatively fragile, it is best used where it will not suffer abrasion or impact. An acre is a unit of land measure that represents 43,560 square feet or 1/640 of a square mile. Clay and shale are typical aquicludes. For that reason, it is common in jewelry. The nucleus consists of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons. Roughneck is a slang term for an oil field worker who does hard manual labor on the floor of a drilling rig. Every year in the United States, accidents at abandoned mines and quarries claim numerous lives. Click on an underlined word for more information on that subject. the science that deals with the dynamics and physical history of the earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the physical, chemical, and biological changes that the earth has undergone or is undergoing. Today, active mines are required to have treatment systems that prevent the release of acid waters. It is composed of broken lava blocks called clinkers. It consists of a mixture of organics and mineral matter. Hornblende, tremolite, actinolite, and glaucophane are examples. A square property that is 208.71 feet long and 208.71 feet wide is approximately one acre. Research Facilities. How to use geology in a sentence. A flat-bottom gully with steep sides that is cut into alluvium. [Coleman Reference Collection – QE5.K42 1996] Lapidus, Dorothy Farris. A fine-grained, extrusive igneous rock composed mainly of plagioclase with other minerals such as hornblende, pyroxene, and biotite. The photo shows the south face of Fajada Butte, Chaco Culture National Historical Park. In the image, a chlorine atom gained one electron (red) and is now a chloride ion with a negative charge. It is also cut as an opaque gemstone and sometimes ground to a powder for use as a pigment. [Coleman Reference Collection – QE5.C45 1985] Kearey, P. The New Penquin Dictionary of Geology. It includes the study of solar system astronomy, geology, oceanography and meteorology. A chain of volcanoes that forms on a continental plate when an oceanic plate collides with the continental plate and subducts beneath it. Environmental microbiology and chemistry; Contaminant hydrogeology; Research Activities. Click on an underlined word for more information on that subject. Shown in the photo is the Badwater Alluvial Fan of Death Valley. "Gross Acreage" is the entire geographic area under control. The loss of ice and snow from a glacier through any process, including melting, sublimation, evaporation, wind erosion, and calving. An area, measured in acres, that is owned or controlled by one or more owners or lessees. Also known as a "valley glacier.". The acre-foot is one of the most common units of measure used for reservoir capacity. The water in this aquifer is under atmospheric pressure and is recharged by precipitation that falls on the land surface directly above the aquifer. Apatite is a phosphate mineral that is mainly used in making fertilizer. Geology is the study of the Earth, the materials of which it is made, the structure of those materials, and the processes acting upon them. Amphibolite is a non-foliated metamorphic rock that forms through recrystallization under conditions of high viscosity and directed pressure. As an example consider a small pearl used in an inexpensive necklace sold at Walmart. Light entering the stone travels until it encounters one of these platelets and is then reflected. Light enters the stone, reflects from the grains and produces a flash known as aventurescence. Some people believe that gemstones should also be durable, rare, valuable and skillfully cut - but some items formally called "gemstones" lack all of these. Most garnets are red in color, but the mineral also occurs in orange, yellow, purple, green, pink, black, and other colors. About every thirty feet, all of the drill pipe and the drill bit are pulled from the well so the core can be lifted to the surface and removed. Amethyst is a transparent variety of quartz that ranges from light lilac to deep purple in color. granite Granite is a common type of igneous rock. The island is about 1.5 miles across, and the central lagoon has a maximum depth of about 60 feet. Frequently referred to by the layman as "hard coal.". Subjects outside of "geology" are sometimes permissible. The top is usually a cap-rock of resistant material. Coins and jewelry are made from gold. Amazonite is a trade name given to a light green to bright green variety of microcline feldspar. Economic geology definition is - a branch of geology that deals with geological materials of economic utility. A Hawaiian term for a lava flow that has a surface flow structure that looks like coiled rope or cord. An area of increased dip in otherwise gently dipping strata. Some have exceptional dispersion and produce a very intese fire. The block above the fault has moved down relative to the block below the fault. The image shows a pyroclastic flow descending down the south flank of Merapi Volcano (Indonesia) in 2006. A variety known as chiastolite has grains of graphite concentrated into a cross-shaped feature. It includes the study of solar system astronomy, geology, oceanography and meteorology. Each orientation of these parallel inclusions within the stone produces a single line on the surface of the stone. It is easily cut and polished into bright, lightweight gems. By definition, a coal with a fixed carbon content of over 91% on a dry ash-free basis. & Allaby, M. 1999, A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. [Coleman Reference Collection - QE5. Dictionary of Geological Terms - Only $19.99. Coverage includes geology, planetary science, oceanography, palaeontology, mineralogy, and volcanology, as well as climatology, geochemistry, and petrology. Click on an underlined word for more information on that subject. Much of their work is the repetitive manipulation of drill pipe as the well is being drilled and when all of the pipe must be pulled to change the bit. Adularescence is a soft glow of light that floats just under the surface of a polished gemstone or under the smooth surface of a gem material. Also see entries for basic, intermediate, and ultrabasic rocks. 'A'a (pronounced "ah-ah") is a Hawaiian term for a lava flow that has a rough, broken-up, spiny surface. These substances have the ability to neutralize acids to form salts. An ocean is a vast body of salt water. The specimen in the photo is a cleavage fragment of plagioclase. A subsurface rock or sediment unit that is porous and permeable. Cut into cabochons for jewelry that will not encounter wear. Home Page. 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Glass fragments smaller than 2 millimeters in size that are surrounded by shells of negatively charged electrons usually carry metals.
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